Chalk must be wholly rejected, and even more land which abounds in springs and where ooze is always standing. Land which is lean because of sand is unfriendly to the olive-tree ; so is " Columella's native province in S. Nam etsi non emoritur in eiusmodi solo, nunquam tamen convalescit. Potest tamen in agro frumentario seri, vel ubi arbutus, aut ilex steterant. Nam quercus etiam excisa radices noxias oliveto relinquit, quarum virus enecat oleam. Haec in universum de toto genere huius arboris habui dicere.
Nunc per partes culturam eius exsequar. Hoc autem facile contingit, si prius varam feceris, et cam partem, supra quam ramum secaturus es, faeno aut stramentis texeris, ut molliter sine noxa corticis taleae super- positae secentur. It can, how- ever, be planted on corn-land or where the straw- berry-tree or holm-oak have stood ; for the ordinary oak, even if it has been cut down, leaves behind roots harmful to the olive-grove, the poison from which kills the olive.
So much for general remarks on this type of tree as a whole ; I will now describe its cultiva- tion in detail. This kind of soil generally consists of black earth. When you have trenched it to the depth of three feet and surrounded it with a deep ditch, so that the cattle may have no access to it, allow the ground to loosen up. Then take from the most fruitful trees tall and flourishing young branches, such as the hand can grasp when it takes 2 hold of them — that is to say of the thickness of a handle — and cut off from these the freshest slips in such a way as not to injure the bark or any other part except where the saw has made its cut.
This is quite easy if you have first made a forked support and protect with hay or straw the part above which you are going to cut the branch, so that the slips which are placed in the fork may be severed gently without any damage to their bark. You will have to smear the tops and lower ends of the slips with a mixture of dung and ashes and plunge them completely underground in such a way that there may be four inches of loose earth above them.
But the slips should be provided mth two marking-pegs, one on each side ; these are of any kind of wood and are placed a little distance away from the slips and are tied together with a band, so that they may not easily be knocked over separately. It is expedient to do this because of the unobservance of the diggers, so that, when you start tilling your nursery with mattocks or hoes, the slips which you have planted may not be injured.
In the follow- ing and subsequent years, when the rootlets of the plants have gained strength, they should be cul- tivated with rakes ; but for the first two years it is best to abstain from pruning, and in the third year two little branches should be left on each plant, and the nursery should be frequently hoed. In the fourth year the weaker of the two branches should be cut away.
Bibliography, it must be understood, will be wholly excluded. Let us then proceed to illustrate this proposition, in its application to our own beloved country of England. A cultural-geographical study]. Potential partners be struck by style of all kinds of singular preferences, too. Owing to the imperfection of language the offspring is termed a new animal, but is in truth a branch or elongation of the parent; since a part of the embryon-animal is, or was, a part of the parent; and therefore in strict language it cannot be said to be entirely new at the time of its production; and therefore it may retain some of the habits of the parent-system. A picture full of life and movement.
Thus cultivated the small trees are fit for transplantation in five years. In dry soil and " The text here is apparently corrupt beyond emendation : the above is a translation of the reading of the MSS. Sed in Favonium dirigi ordines convenit, ut aestivo perflatu refrige- rentur. Four-foot plant-holes are prepared for them a year earlier, or, if there is not an abundance of time before the trees are planted, let straw and twigs be thrown in and the plant-holes burnt, so that the fire may make them friable, as the sun and frost ought to have done.
On ground which is rich and fit for growing corn the space between the rows ought to be sixty feet in one direction and forty in the other : if the soil is poor and not suitable for crops, twenty-five feet. But it is proper that the rows should be aligned towards the west, that they may be cooled by the summer-breeze blowing through them.
The small trees themselves may be transplanted in the following manner. Before you pull up a little tree from the soil," mark on it with ruddle the side of it which faces south, so that it may be planted in the same manner as in the nursery. Next let a space of one foot be left round the little tree in a circle and then let the plant be pulled up with its own turf, and that this turf may not be broken up in the process of removal, you must weave together moderate-sized twigs taken from rods and apply them to the lump of earth which is being removed and so bind it with " The text here is quite uncertain, but the sense is obvious.
Deinde ingerendi minuti la- pides vel glarea mixta pingui solo, depositisque seminibus latera scrobis circumcidenda, et aliquid 10 stercoris interponendum. Poterit etiam longe maioris incrementi et robustioris transferri. Quern ita convenit poni, ut, si non periculum a pecore habeat, exiguus admodum supra scrobem emineat : laetius enim frondet. Then having dug up the 9 lowest part, you must gently move the lump of earth and bind it to the rods put under it and transfer the plant. Next minute stones or gravel mixed with rich soil must be thrown in and, after seeds have been put in, the sides of the plant-hole must be pared away all round and some manure put in among them.
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If, however, it is not convenient to remove the plant 10 with its own earth, it is best to strip the stem of all its leaves and, after smoothing its wounds and daubing them with mud and ashes, place it in the plant-hole or furrow. A stem is quite ready for moving '' which is as thick as a man's arm ; one of much greater and stronger growth can also be transplanted, but it must be so placed if it is not in any danger from cattle, that only a little of it projects above the plant-hole ; it then produces more luxuriant foliage.
If, however, the attacks of cattle cannot be avoided in any other way, the stem will be planted so as to project further from the ground, so that it may " Schneider, by a quotation from Palladius III. Atque etiam rigandae sunt plantae, cum siccitates incesserunt, nee nisi post biennium ferro tangendae.
Deinde constitutum iam et maturum olivetum in duas partes dividere, quae alternis annis fructu in- duantur. Neque enim olea continuo biennio uberat.
As the cicatricula of these eggs is given by the cock, and is evidently the rudiment of the new animal; we may conclude, that the embryon is produced by the male, and the proper food and nidus by the female. For if the female be supposed to form an equal part of the embryon, why should she form the whole of the apparatus for nutriment and for oxygenation? In objection to this theory of generation it may be said, if the animalcula in femine, as seen by the microscope, be all of them rudiments of homunculi, when but one of them can find a nidus, what a waste nature has made of her productions?
I do not assert that these moving particles, visible by the microscope, are homunciones; perhaps they may be the creatures of stagnation or putridity, or perhaps no creatures at all; but if they are supposed to be rudiments of homunculi, or embryons, such a profusion of them corresponds with the general efforts of nature to provide for the continuance of her species of animals. Every individual tree produces innumerable seeds, and every individual fish innumerable spawn, in such inconceivable abundance as would in a short space of time crowd the earth and ocean with inhabitants; and these are much more perfect animals than the animalcula in femine can be supposed to be, and perish in uncounted millions.
This argument only shews, that the productions of nature are governed by general laws; and that by a wise superfluity of provision she has ensured their continuance. That the embryon is secreted or produced by the male, and not by the conjunction of fluids from both male and female, appears from the analogy of vegetable seeds. In the large flowers, as the tulip, there is no similarity of apparatus between the anthers and the stigma: the seed is produced according to the observations of Spallanzani long before the flowers open, and in consequence long before it can be impregnated, like the egg in the pullet.
And after the prolific dust is shed on the stigma, the seed becomes coagulated in one point first, like the cicatricula of the impregnated egg. See Botanic Garden, Part I. Now in these simple products of nature, if the female contributed to produce the new embryon equally with the male, there would probably have been some visible similarity of parts for this purpose, besides those necessary for the nidus and sustenance of the new progeny.
Besides in many flowers the males are more numerous than the females, or than the separate uterine cells in their germs, which would shew, that the office of the male was at least as important as that of the female; whereas if the female, besides producing the egg or seed, was to produce an equal part of the embryon, the office of reproduction would be unequally divided between them.
Add to this, that in the most simple kind of vegetable reproduction, I mean the buds of trees, which are their viviparous offspring, the leaf is evidently the parent of the bud, which rises in its bosom, according to the observation of Linnaeus. This leaf consists of absorbent vessels, and pulmonary ones, to obtain its nutriment, and to impregnate it with oxygene.
This simple piece of living organization is also furnished with a power of reproduction; and as the new offspring is thus supported adhering to its father, it needs no mother to supply it with a nidus, and nutriment, and oxygenation; and hence no female leaf has existence. I conceive that the vessels between the bud and the leaf communicate or inosculate; and that the bud is thus served with vegetable blood, that is, with both nutriment and oxygenation, till the death of the parent-leaf in autumn. And in this respect it differs from the fetus of viviparous animals.
Secondly, that then the bark-vessels belonging to the dead-leaf, and in which I suppose a kind of manna to have been deposited, become now the placental vessels, if they may be so called, of the new bud. From the vernal sap thus produced of one sugar-maple-tree in New-York and in Pennsylvania, five or six pounds of good sugar may be made annually without destroying the tree. Account of maple-sugar by B. London, Phillips. These vessels, when the warmth of the vernal sun hatches the young bud, serve it with a saccharine nutriment, till it acquires leaves of its own, and shoots a new system of absorbents down the bark and root of the tree, just as the farinaceous or oily matter in seeds, and the saccharine matter in fruits, serve their embryons with nutriment, till they acquire leaves and roots.
This analogy is as forceable in so obscure a subject, as it is curious, and may in large buds, as of the horse-chesnut, be almost seen by the naked eye; if with a penknife the remaining rudiment of the last year's leaf, and of the new bud in its bosom, be cut away slice by slice. The seven ribs of the last year's leaf will be seen to have arisen from the pith in seven distinct points making a curve; and the new bud to have been produced in their centre, and to have pierced the alburnum and cortex, and grown without the assistance of a mother.
A similar process may be seen on dissecting a tulip-root in winter; the leaves, which inclosed the last year's flower-stalk, were not necessary for the flower; but each of these was the father of a new bud, which may be now found at its base; and which, as it adheres to the parent, required no mother.
This paternal offspring of vegetables, I mean their buds and bulbs, is attended with a very curious circumstance; and that is, that they exactly resemble their parents, as is observable in grafting fruit-trees, and in propagating flower-roots; whereas the seminal offspring of plants, being supplied with nutriment by the mother, is liable to perpetual variation. Thus also in the vegetable class dioicia, where the male flowers are produced on one tree, and the female ones on another; the buds of the male trees uniformly produce either male flowers, or other buds similar to themselves; and the buds of the female trees produce either female flowers, or other buds similar to themselves; whereas the seeds of these trees produce either male or female plants.
From this analogy of the production of vegetable buds without a mother, I contend that the mother does not contribute to the formation of the living ens in animal generation, but is necessary only for supplying its nutriment and oxygenation. There is another vegetable fact published by M. Koelreuter, which he calls "a complete metamorphosis of one natural species of plants into another," which shews, that in seeds as well as in buds, the embryon proceeds from the male parent, though the form of the subsequent mature plant is in part dependant on the female.
Koelreuter impregnated a stigma of the nicotiana rustica with the farina of the nicotiana paniculata, and obtained prolific seeds from it. With the plants which sprung from these seeds, he repeated the experiment, impregnating them with the farina of the nicotiana paniculata. As the mule plants which he thus produced were prolific, he continued to impregnate them for many generations with the farina of the nicotiana paniculata, and they became more and more like the male parent, till he at length obtained six plants in every respect perfectly similar to the nicotiana paniculata; and in no respect resembling their female parent the nicotiana rustica.
Blumenbach on Generation.
It is probable that the insects, which are said to require but one impregnation for six generations, as the aphis see Amenit. Those who have attended to the habits of the polypus, which is found in the stagnant water of our ditches in July, affirm, that the young ones branch out from the side of the parent like the buds of trees, and after a time separate themselves from them. This is so analogous to the manner in which the buds of trees appear to be produced, that these polypi may be considered as all male animals, producing embryons, which require no mother to supply them with a nidus, or with nutriment, and oxygenation.
This lateral or lineal generation of plants, not only obtains in the buds of trees, which continue to adhere to them, but is beautifully seen in the wires of knot-grass, polygonum aviculare, and in those of strawberries, fragaria vesca. In these an elongated creeping bud is protruded, and, where it touches the ground, takes root, and produces a new plant derived from its father, from which it acquires both nutriment and oxygenation; and in consequence needs no maternal apparatus for these purposes.